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Italian Risorgimento

The history of the Risorgimento, from the Congress of Vienna to the Unification of Italy, through the companies of the great Italian patriots.

For the Italian Risorgimento means the historical period of the Unification of Italy, when the states of the region gathered in one state and Rome was declared capital in February 1871. The Italian Risorgimento was not just about politics, the term outlined in fact also the rebirth of Italy's artistic, history and literature point of view.


At the end of the Napoleonic Wars was called the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) to restore the land of the European states and the legitimacy of the rulers. Austria obtained in Italy, in addition to the Lombardo-Veneto, even indirect control of the Duchy of Parma assigned to Maria Luisa of Austria, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Modena and Reggio. The Kingdom of Naples came to Ferdinand IV of Bourbon in 1817 with the acquisition of Sicily, came to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Papal State was returned to Pope Pius VII.

Following these events in Italy, particularly in Naples, there were a series of revolts led by the Carbonari, a political secret movement that between 1820 and 1821 gave birth to Moti Carbonari. During these clashes claimed the lives of many Italian patriots, including Piero Maroncelli and Silvio Pellico, who wrote "My Prison" the famous biography in which he describes the harsh living conditions of political prisoners under a harsh prison in the Austrian fortress of Spielberg.

After Pellico was the turn of Giuseppe Mazzini, one of the fathers of the fatherland. Giuseppe Mazzini joined the Carbonari and was promoted to the motions of several uprisings in 1830. His ideas and his political action contributed significantly to the emergence of the unified Italian State. Mazzini's theories were of great importance in defining the modern European movement for the affirmation of democracy through the republican form of the state.

In 1850, the Count Camillo Benso di Cavour entered the Piedmontese government: as  a first minister for trade and agriculture, later becoming minister of finance and also the Navy, and finally Prime Minister is November 4, 1852. From the beginning, as trade minister takes an action that points to many agreements with European nations, enter into trade agreements with Greece, the Hanseatic cities, the German Customs Union, Switzerland and the Netherlands, and deepen the contacts with the powers European summer of 1852, traveling and meeting in London the British Foreign Malmesbury, Palmerston, Clarendon, Disraeli, Cobden, Gladstone and Paris and Lansdowne President Louis Napoleon and the French Foreign Minister.


The movements for independence that traveled Europe in 1848-49 were echoed in the Italian states, which were formed Provisional Revolutionary Government and in the case of Venice and Rome led to the proclamation of the Republic: the backlash of the European monarchies, however, would also cut off these claims.

After the victorious outcome of the Insurrection of Milan (the Five Days of Milan) and Venice, Piemont, now he set at the head of the movement for Italian unification, fought, and lost the first war of independence against the empire Habsburg (1848 '49);


War of Independence (1858-59), preceded by the important agreements Plombières with the French emperor Napoleon III, began with some military successes of the Franco-Piedmontese (Battles of Magenta, Solferino and San Martino ) and Garibaldi's Hunters of the Alps active in Lombardy, but the armistice of Villafranca (1859) between France and Austria gained Lombardy only the House of Savoy.


There followed a wave of uprisings in various Italian territories in favor of annexation to Piedmont: the Thousand Garibaldi (1860), having facilitated the liberation of the south, allowed the reunification under the crown of Savoy also the Centre. Remained excluded from the new single body, the Veneto and Rome: the first was awarded to Italy after the third war of independence (1866), following the Austro-Prussian war ended with the victory of Prussia and the other, after the proclamation of Kingdom of Italy (1861), will be finally conquered in 1870.


To find the locations of the Risorgimento in Rome, squares and monuments where great battles were fought, we suggest the Italian Risorgimento Itinerary, a journey through art and history should not miss.



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